Coffee plants of the world


In this article we take you on a journey around the world, examining the unique characteristics of different coffee types. From the mountain ranges of Ethiopia to the rainforests of Brazil, we'll see how geographic and climatic factors influence the final taste of your morning drink.

We at Zwarte Roes use micro-roasting to ultimately extract the best flavors from the seed of the berry of the coffee plant , a technique that requires a critical eye and precision, allowing each bean to reach its full potential.

Arabica (Coffea arabica)

For the true coffee lover, Arabica is the undisputed king of coffee varieties. This species, which originates from the mountainous region of southwestern Ethiopia, is responsible for almost 70% of global coffee production. Arabica plants are relatively difficult to grow, preferring high altitudes, plenty of shade and constant temperatures between 15 and 24 degrees Celsius. This contributes to their fine, complex flavors and aromas that are often sweet and smooth with hints of fruit and berries.

Arabica beans are also known for their variety of flavor profiles depending on where they are grown. For example, beans from Brazil may have nutty and chocolate notes, while those from Kenya may have more citrus and berry flavors. But regardless of where they come from, 100% Arabica beans always guarantee a quality cup. This variety has a lower caffeine content than other varieties, which contributes to their milder, less bitter taste.

Robusta (Coffee canephora)

Robusta, or Coffea canephora as it is officially known, is a powerhouse in the world of coffee. This variety, which is native to the lowlands of Central and West Africa, makes up about 30% of global coffee production. This is mainly due to the robust nature of the plant, which is much more resistant to diseases and pests than the Arabica plant. The Robusta plant can also survive better at lower altitudes and in higher temperatures, making cultivation less demanding.

In terms of taste, Robusta has a stronger and rougher taste than Arabica. It typically has a higher caffeine content, resulting in a more bitter taste and a fuller body. This makes it the ideal choice for those who enjoy a strong, strong cup of coffee. Robusta's flavor profiles can vary, but often have earthy notes with a hint of chocolate.

In addition, Robusta is also often used in espresso blends, thanks to its ability to produce a good crema (the layer of cream on the coffee). While it may not be the gourmet's first choice, Robusta certainly has its place in the world of coffee, offering an interesting alternative for those looking for something different from the typical Arabica flavor.



Liberica (Coffee liberica)

Liberica, also known as Coffea liberica, is quite unique in the coffee world. This species, which originated in Liberia, West Africa, makes up only a small percentage of global coffee production, making it a rarity. The plant itself is resistant to many diseases that threaten Arabica and Robusta, and grows at higher altitudes than its counterparts.

To describe the taste of Liberica requires an adventurous spirit. With its striking profile, this coffee variety clearly distinguishes itself from Arabica and Robusta. Liberica beans often have a unique fruity and floral aroma, which is complimented in the cup by notes of dark chocolate, ripe fruit and even smoky, woody flavors. Despite these complex flavors, Liberica has a surprisingly light body and is less bitter than other varieties.

Liberica coffee can provide an interesting experience for the adventurous coffee drinker. Although not as popular as Arabica or Robusta, Liberica offers a unique taste experience that is definitely worth exploring.

Excelsa (Koffie excelsa or Coffea liberica var. dewevrei)

Excelsa, a variety of Coffea liberica and better known as Coffea liberica var. dewevrei, is one of the most mysterious players on the global coffee scene. It represents only a small portion of global coffee production, but what it lacks in quantity it makes up for in quality and uniqueness.

This special type of coffee originates in the regions around Lake Tanganyika in Africa and is known for its unusual flavor profile. Excelsa has a strikingly different aroma from its Liberica relative, with a complex blend of flavors that tantalize the pallet. Considered a gourmet coffee, Excelsa is praised for its fruity and floral notes, which are further enhanced by a hint of dark chocolate and nuts.

In terms of cultivation, Excelsa is a hardy plant that does well in a variety of climates and altitudes, making it an attractive option for coffee farmers. However, despite its potential, Excelsa production remains relatively low due to the dominance of Arabica and Robusta in the market.

Excelsa is certainly not for everyone, but for those looking for something different in their daily cup, it can be an exciting change.


In the world of coffee there are hidden gems waiting to be discovered. Arabica and Robusta may dominate the market, but that does not mean that other varieties have less value.

Liberica and Excelsa give a unique twist to the traditional coffee experience, with their exceptional flavor profiles and aromas. They offer a compelling alternative for those looking for something new and unexpected. Although they only make up a small share of global coffee production, they have the power to completely change your perception of coffee. That is why these special coffee variations certainly deserve the attention of every coffee lover.